• Ikhsanov Yerbol Saginovich
  • Meirbekov Nurkanat Ayazbayuly
  • Shalmagambetov Kairzhan Mustafinovich

Ключевые слова:

cellulose, nitration, supercritical conditions, nitrocellulose


This article presents the results of a study of the process of producing nitrocellulose from Kazakhstani
cellulose raw materials using supercritical technology.
Nitration can be carried out both directly and indirectly. Direct nitration processes include the reactions of
replacing a hydrogen atom by a nitro group or the addition of nitrating agents via a multiple bond, and indirect
nitration involves replacing other atoms or groups of atoms with a nitro group (for example, halogens, sulfo groups).
Indirect nitration methods include oxidation reactions of nitrogen-containing substances to nitro compounds, as well
as condensation reactions leading to nitro compounds.
At the same time, the traditional method of nitration of cellulose is quite “dirty” from an environmental point of
view, since it spends a huge (several thousand times more than the volume of nitrocellulose obtained) amount of
water for the subsequent stage of washing nitrocellulose from nitration mixture residues after nitration.
This factor significantly increases the cost of water decontamination and links production to large reservoirs,
which is not always possible, especially in arid regions.
In addition, due to the relatively small conversion of the nitration process using a nitrating mixture, the
production of nitrocellulose requires the construction of large-scale production workshops. Which is also not always
Associations with the above are of great interest to alternative nitration technologies, in particular nitration
under supercritical conditions.
The aim of this work is to study the processes of nitration of cellulose in a supercritical static reactor.
For the experiment, the nitration method was chosen in a static supercritical reactor in a carbon dioxide medium
using nitric oxide V as a nitrating agent.
As a raw material, cotton pulp of the 1st grade was used.
The initial reagent for producing nitric oxide V was nitric acid with a concentration of 65%
The process was carried out in a static reactor.
As a result, a white fibrous mass was obtained, similar in appearance to cellulose, readily soluble in acetone and
insoluble in water, the density was 1.63 g / cm³, based on the density, analysis of the melting temperature and the
nature of the combustion, we can conclude pyroxylin with a nitrogen content of 12.05 - 12.4%.